With the rise of human civilization, barter was an integral part of human life. From the Stone Age onwards, human beings lived a nomadic and nomadic life, beginning with the exchange of arms and meat with each other.

At present, with globalization, goods produced in one country are transported across seven seas by large ships and by air and rail. In the same way, at that time, after a long journey of months and days, the goods produced in one place were exchanged with the goods of another place.

Karnali was prosperous in a period of history. The empire of the Khas Empire extended as far as the Kathmandu (Nepal) Valley. Whether the birthplace of the Khas Empire or the birthplace of the Nepali language, Karnali had its own vast history. 

The source of supernatural rivers like Bheri and Karnali is a region with a distinct heritage in the history of Nepal. Karnali at that time was kind of prosperous. Cereals produced in Karnali were exported to Tibet. In this article, an attempt will be made to trace the history of Karnali and the same Karmath Hataru Mantha, the karma land of the Manthas (Himalayan caste / Bhote, Khas, and Matwali) who made Karnali prosperous.

The high mountainous terrain of Karnali (Bhote) is bordered by Tibet. Khas and Thakuri lived in the lower part of Karnali. The relationship of the people living in these three regions was connected by salt, wool and grain. 

The occupation of the people of these areas was agriculture and animal husbandry along with long distance trade. In trade, especially salt, wool and grain were exchanged. Salt and grain were used for food and for exchange, and garments made from wool were sold at the market. 

It was these haters who stopped the economy of Karnali. Hataru's relationship with Nechang (Ishta) and Mitmiteri was interrupted. Hataru traveled from Tibet to the mountains, from the hills to the Terai and to India. Which we also understand as 'knowing the vote and knowing the market'. 

Mantha used to have his own role in the process of 'going to the polls and going to the polls'. Along with barter, ideas were also exchanged. Relationships were established between people. People used to settle in the mountains as far as the Terai. 

People connected geography and people connected art, culture and relationships. The society was self-reliant, hard-working and hard-working people were physically miserable but mentally happy. 

Women of all age groups, from children to adults, were included in the voting process. Each group had a team leader, who had a moral obligation to take the herd safely to its destination, arranging where to stay, when to return, and so on. In the same herd, leadership was gradually developed in children and youth. These and so on seem to be invisible, but within that there was an important way of life and humane income in the culture of 'going to the market and going to the polls'.

The Himalayan tribes bordering Tibet in the north used to bring salt from Tibet during the rainy season. In mid-November, they used to go to the same salt yak and come to the Rong (valley) area and exchange salt and grain with Rongba. Rongba used to take the same salt to the sheep and goats and exchange it with Khasan (Mhon) Khas and Thakuri for rice and Uwa with salt and wool. 

Khas and Thakuri used to trade woolen garments, silajit, and herbs in the Boki Terai and India. Thakuri and Khas used to return from Terai and India with tea, cigarettes, spices, metals, plastics, sugar etc.

The Hataru Route to Karnali

The Hataru of Karnali had four major routes. Hataru of Karnali used to trade from these routes. Taklakot and Lapcha of Humla, Nakcha of Mugu, Marim of Dolpa, Kankun and Kato. Because of the plateau and desert of Tibet, there was salt but no grain. So grain was important for that and salt was important because there was no salt in the South Karnali region. Hataru used to supply goods between the two areas. 

The salt brought from Tibet would come to Central Karnali through three regions and the grain from Central Karnali would reach Tibet again. At that time, there were four popular routes of Hataru in Karnali.

Through the Upper Mugu-Karan and Jajarkot, theDailekh 

Mughals and the Karnis used to bring salt from Tibet to the Khasan region from the upper Mugu network. The Khas and Thakuris of the Khasan area used to transport the same salt to Surkhet and Dang through Jajarkot.

From Upper Humla to Taklakot and Lapcha La to Lower Humla to Bajura and Achham,

Upper Humla Sanjal-Taklakot was a very important checkpoint. This checkpoint was very important because there were so many settlements around it. On the other hand, buffaloes used to come to Taklakot from the Mahakali side. Limal used to bring salt from Lapcha La and exchange it around Simikot.

Dolpa used to bring salt from Phoksundo and Rigmo to Manisangu of Jumla and Dilli Kot. Then Khas Thakuri would take the salt to Bajura and Achham.

Dolpo of Upper Dolpa used to bring salt to the Tichhurong area through Marim and Kato. The same salt was brought by Tarali Magar to Rukum and Jajarkot and exchanged with rice.

Case no. 1

Dolpa Nechang (Ishta) was related to Tarali Magar of Tichhurong region and Dolpo caste of Upper Dolpa. In mid-November, Dolpo Nechang used to come to Tichhurong with bhote salt and wool. And salt and grain were exchanged. 

The Tarali crocodile used to keep the salt he needed and use the rest of the salt to go to Rukum and Jajarkot in the south Khasan area towards Mansir and go to Bakar (sheep caravan). 

They used to exchange the salt with rice and return to Tichhurong in Chait Baishakh. Someone would exchange wool and grain with it and weave sweaters, belts, and rugs from the wool and reach Rukum and Rolpa. After selling the goods in Rukum Rolpa, they would reach Butwal and Kalimpung and Calcutta in India, bring tea, horse bells, etc. and return to Tichhurong in April. They used to go to Uplo Dolpa (Vote) again in Saun Bhadau with the same.

Case No. 2 

Mugum and Karan of the upper region of Mugu used to pass through Namjala in August and take a yak caravan to Cheptu in Tibet. The Mughals used to bring salt thereby exchanging salt and grains with the Tibetan Drokpa. In November, Mugali and Karni used to take the same salt and wool around Mum's Gamgadhi and reach Jumla's Sinja. There were their nechang (isht) khas and thakuris. Salt and wool, rice and other grains were exchanged.

Case No. 3

Taklakot, the main gateway to Humla, was the most important gateway to Karnali. At this point, not only the people of Humla but also the people of Bajhang and Darchula used to take salt. 

In particular, various communities such as Thaple (Yari, Tumkot, Muchu, Yangar, Yalbang, and Chala), Sandephale (Khangal village, Jadkholchi), Panchsati (Kermi, Dingna, Chaduki, Yakba, and Tangen), Baharathaple (Burungshe) to get salt from Humla. , Torpa, Nimatang, and Bargaun), Limi (sesame, halji and zhang) etc. used to go to Taklakot and exchange salt and grains. 

In Humla, the Lata's Hatarus used to pass Lapcha and go to Tibet. Similarly, the inhabitants of Darma, Melchham, Diplang and Nepka, living in the western part of Humla Karnali, used to cross the Tanke river and exchange salt and grain in Tibet. 

Satthaple (Yari, Tumkot, Muchu, Yangar, Yalbang, and Chala), the same salt and wool yak, went to Jopa and reached Bajura and Achham. In the same way, the five-fold Yakbas used to go to Lukal (heavy) of salt on the sheep and reach Achham towards Kattik.

Similarly, the Baharathapals of Humla used to carry salt to the sheep and reach Bajura through Raskot stream. The limousines of Limi exchanged salt and grain with the lower Humla Thakuri and Khas. Salt was exchanged for grains as well as chillies, cigarettes and honey.  

Case No. 4

Jumla's khas and thakuri used to reach Nepalgunj and India with salt and wool along with herbs like Shilajit, Kasturi Vina etc. They brought spices, tea, sugar, metal products, etc. from the Terai and India and sold them to the Mughals again.

Eclipse in the salt cycle and the state of Hataru

The eclipse after 1959 seems to be gradually taking place in the Bhote salt cycle. The Bhote Nun Chakra, which was initially one-sided, was gradually partially displaced. 

Anthropologists such as Hammondroff (1975), James Fischer (1987), Kenneth Bauer (2004) and geographer Berry C. Found in a study by Bishop (1990). 

According to him, the main reason for the eclipse is China's tightening of border policy by keeping Tibet under its control. The Chinese government has raised taxes on bhote salt in Tibet. The quota system was also implemented in the production of bhote salt. Due to which bhote salt became expensive. Due to the tightening of the border, it was not possible to move around as easily as before. 

Another aspect of development is the development of the East-West Mahendra Highway and the construction of an airport in Nepal. 

At the same time, the market for Indian desi salt has expanded due to various reasons such as the lack of iodine in bhote salt and the fact that it causes goiter. As a result, it helped displace salt. 

As the salt cycle disappeared, so did the knowledge, skills, and art of the Himalayan tribes. Yak, Jopa (male yak), horse and sheep had to be used to carry salt. These animals were the charioteers of the long-distance Bhote Nun Chakra. They used to bring these animals with heavy loads of salt and grains. 

As China tightened the border, grazing became inconvenient and animal husbandry declined. After the decline of animal husbandry, the production of woven cloths like bakkhu, docha, kammal etc. was declining. At the same time, the knowledge and skills of the tribals were being overshadowed. Instead, new bazaars, clothes and food found a place.

Thus, as 'Haat Janya and Bhot Janya' were being displaced and the salt trade in Karnali's Hataru was declining, people's life became more difficult and difficult. The Karnali Himalayan region, which used to export grain to Tibet yesterday, is now importing rice from Tibet. 

So, unlike the grain cycle from the central hills of Nepal in Tibet during the Bhote Nun Chakra yesterday, today we have to rely entirely on China for rice, flour, ghee, and daily necessities in those mountainous terrains. At the same time, self-reliant culture is declining, dependency and consumerism are gaining popularity.